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Rosehips are now ripe all over my local area. Here is a quick and simple recipe for Rosehip Syrup.
Boil the rosehips for 2 minutes and let them infuse for 30 minutes. Mash up the rosehips, let them infuse for another 10 minutes and drain through a jelly bag.
Reserve the liquid. Add the sugar and bring back to the boil.
Bottle in sterilized bottles.
Lacto-fermentation is a microbial process which uses beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium spp. and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These thrive in an anaerobic fermenting environment and, together with yeasts, they work together to convert raw food into more easily-digestible components, along with releasing and stabilizing nutrients of the food.
Like the fermentation of dairy products, preservation of vegetables and fruits by the process of lacto-fermentation has numerous advantages beyond those of simple preservation. The proliferation of lactobacilli in fermented vegetables enhances their digestibility and increases vitamin levels. These beneficial organisms produce numerous helpful enzymes as well as antibiotic and anticarcinogenic substances. Their main by-product, lactic acid, not only keeps vegetables and fruits in a state of perfect preservation but also promotes the growth of healthy flora throughout the intestine.
Lacto-fermented condiments are easy to make. Fruits and vegetables are washed, cut up, mixed with salt, herbs and/or spices and then pounded briefly to release juices. They are then pressed into an air tight container. Salt inhibits putrefying bacteria for several days until enough lactic acid is produced to preserve the vegetables for many months. The amount of salt can be reduced or even eliminated if whey is added to the pickling solution. Rich in lactic acid and lactic-acid-producing bacteria, whey acts as an inoculant, reducing the time needed for sufficient lactic acid to be produced to ensure preservation.
During the first few days of fermentation, the vegetables are kept at room temperature; afterwards, they must be placed in a cool, dark place for long-term preservation. A room temperature of about 22 C will be sufficient to ensure a lactic-acid fermentation in about two to four days. More time will be needed if your kitchen is colder and less if it is very warm. After two to four days at room temperature, the jars should be placed in a dark, cool spot, ideally one with a temperature of about 4 C. In days gone by, crocks of lacto-fermented vegetables were stored in root cellars or caves. The top shelf of your refrigerator will do.
It is important to use the best quality organic vegetables, sea salt and filtered or pure water for lacto-fermentation. Lactobacilli need plenty of nutrients to do their work. If the vegetables are deficient, the process of fermentation will not proceed. Likewise if the salt or water contains impurities, the quality of the final product will be jeopardized.
About one inch of space should be left between the top of your vegetables with their liquid and the top of the jar, as the vegetables and their juices expand slightly during fermentation. Jars should then be closed very tightly. Lacto-fermentation is an anaerobic process and the presence of oxygen, once fermentation has begun, will ruin the final product.
If you’re thinking about foraging and don’t know what to go for, stinging nettles are a good starting point. The plant is easy to recognize, it is available almost throughout the year, can be used in many different kinds of dishes, from soups to omelettes and in just about any dish where you would normally be using spinach or soft green leaves.
Last, but definitely not least, it can be used to produce a delicately flavoured drink that resembles both cider and a sweet wine.
Nettle beer is ready to drink just a week from picking. Fermentation takes between three and five days, although some people leave their mixture to ferment for up to two weeks. Fermentation needs to reach its natural conclusion or you run the risk of your bottles exploding.
At 49, Alex Atala, chef and owner of D.O.M., in Sao Paulo, looks like a rock star. Sporting a red beard, prominent tattoos, the man is one of the stars of world gastronomy. His restaurant in Sao Paulo, D.O.M. -Deus Optimus Maximus, “God the Greatest and the Best” – has been ranked among the top ten in the world for four years.
A prestigious status for someone who left school at 14 to discover the “big city”, became a punk DJ and did more than his share of drugs, as he freely admits.
Milad Alexandre Mack Atala, a descendant of Palestinian immigrants, grew up in Sao Bernardo dos Campos in southeastern Sao Paulo. At 20, he is backpacking through Europe. With empty pockets and a Belgian visa about to expire, he decides to enrol in a cooking school, the “École Hôtelière de Namur”, in order to stay in Europe. He discovers a passion and works at Jean-Pierre Bruneau’s 3-star Michelin restaurant in Brussels. He will then spend 10 years in France, working under Bernard Loiseau at Hôtel de la Côte d’Or in Saulieu, then in Montpellier and finally in Milan.
In 1994, he is back in Brazil and works in Sao Paulo in a Japanese restaurant before being offered a redesign of Filomena’s menu. This earns him the ‘best young chef’ award of the Brazilian Association of Bars and Restaurants. In 1999, Alex Atala opens Namesa, his first business. A few months later, he opens D.O.M. in one of the beautiful neighborhoods of the economic capital of Brazil. In just three years, D.O.M. gains national acclaim and, in 2006, it is included by British magazine “Restaurant” in its list of the world’s 50 greatest restaurants.
The Amazon as a culinary paradise
Alex Atala owes his fame to the Amazon, this “new frontier of flavors” where he draws his inspiration. The region has become his favorite territory, “a universe in its own right with an almost infinite wealth of products”. Atala is an explorer and can spend days in the forest, looking for new ingredients, from which he will create new dishes.
“The Amazon makes up 47% of Brazil, so it is normal that it occupies at least 47% of my culinary research.”
His menu includes insects such as saúva, a large Amazon ant, which tastes of lemongrass and ginger, served on a piece of pineapple. Atala serves pirarucu river fish, pitanga fruit, tucupi, a yellow juice extracted from the traditional cassava root of the Amazon, priprioca, a herb that was previously used in the cosmetics industry, but also flower ceviche with local honey or wild boar.
“The difference between being good, very good and exceptional as a cook,” says Atala, “is in having the flavours in your memory. If I tell you mozzarella tastes of Italy and miso speaks of Japan, then tucupi [fermented manioc juice] and ants are the taste of Brazil.”
A chef with a mission
Recognized as one of the best chefs in the world, Alex Atala has also launched the ATA Institute, which aims to rethink the relationship between man and food. “Far from Facebook, food is the biggest social network on the planet. It is food that connects us with nature on a daily basis,” says the chef, who believes in the power of social transformation of cooking. He now strives to defend regional ingredients, to protect nature and to defend small producers. “Knowing the path food takes to reach our plate already causes change and raises awareness in society.”
His other self-assigned mission is to save traditional knowledge before it is lost and keep alive “the recipes of the great grandmothers”. Atala claims this forgotten heritage, which he considers must be respected and safeguarded in the face of national laws that “aim not for diversity but pasteurization”.